Japan League Honour of Nations Geneva Face-saving outfit
In 1931 the Japanese Kwantung Army invaded Manchuria, a province of China. This was
in direct contravention of the Covenant of the League - to which Japan, as a permanent
member of the League's Council, had sworn. It also contravened the multi-nation
Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928, which disavowed war and which Japan had signed. The League
dispatched Lord Lytton to conduct an inquiry. The report was finally completed in
October of 1932, found Japan to be the aggressor and ordered her withdrawal from China.
Japan refused to accept the findings and eventually, in March 1933, left the League.
This was perceived by all to be an inappropriate measure to take against aggression,
particularly aggression by a powerful Council member, and undoubtedly contributed to a
loss of confidence in the League as a peace-keeping force in the 1930s.
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