Archives and collections
Comics in the British Library, United Kingdom
The British Library Newspaper Library has been receiving British comics via legal deposit since the 1870s, and a history of its “British Comics Collection” can be found at http://www.bl.uk/reshelp/findhelprestype/news/britcomics/ . The Library’s website also contains a “Select List of British Comics Held in the British Library Newspaper Library”, which can be found at http://www.bl.uk/reshelp/findhelprestype/journals/comiclist/index.html .
National Portrait Gallery, United Kingdom
The National Portrait Gallery’s online database contains information on approximately 34,000 works from the gallery’s collection, 11,500 of which are illustrated. The archive can be searched at http://www.npg.org.uk/live/search/, and contains a large number of portraits by and of cartoonists - including more than 450 works by David Low.
National Art Library, United Kingdom
The National Art Library at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London has collections of comic and cartoon material, which are described on its website at http://www.vam.ac.uk
The John Johnson Collection, United Kingdom
The political and satirical prints from the John Johnson Collection of printed ephemera at the Bodleian Library in Oxford have been digitised, and can be viewed on the web at http://vads.ahds.ac.uk/collections/JJPP.html. The main sequence of prints - Political Cartoons 1-6 - contains more than a thousand items, and all of them can be viewed online. Images from the prints of trades and professions in the John Johnson Collection are also available online. They are accessible through http://vads.ahds.ac.uk/collections/JJTP.html, and contain some caricatures.
The Spellman Collection, United Kingdom
The Spellman Collection of Victorian Music Covers was donated to Reading University Library by Doreen and Sidney Spellman in 1994, and some 800 sheet music covers, largely from this collection, can be searched and viewed at http://vads.ahds.ac.uk/collections/SCVMC.html. Many of the covers are valuable social caricatures.
History of Advertising Trust, United Kingdom
The History of Advertising Trust has a unique archive of British advertising material, including advertising cartoons. Its website at http://www.hatads.org.uk/ has a gallery of images, and its archive can be searched online through http://www.lib.uea.ac.uk/HAT/
The Artists’ Papers Register, United Kingdom
The Artists’ Papers Register (APR) was launched in 1999, as an initiative by the Association of Art Historians. It is a finding list of the papers of artists, designers, and craftspeople located in the United Kingdom, and includes both cartoonists and caricaturists. The online database can be found at http://www.hmc.gov.uk/artists/. The APR is hosted by the National Register of Archives (see entry), which contains additional related entries on journalists, publishers, printers, etc.
National Register of Archives, United Kingdom
The National Register of Archives (NRA) is maintained by the Historical Manuscripts Commission, which was established in 1869 to provide information about the existence, location and nature of manuscripts and records for the study of British history. The NRA contains entries for some individuals and organisations important in the history of cartooing and caricaturing, but not listed in the Artists’ Papers Register - such as Mark Lemon (1809-1870) the editor of Punch, or Lord Beaverbrook (1879-1964) owner of the Daily Express and Evening Standard. The NRA’s online database can be found at http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/nra/.
Haus der Geschichte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Germany
In 1986 material began to be collected for a museum of postwar German history, and in 1990 the Haus der Geschichte of the Federal Republic of Germany was established in Bonn as “a centre for exhibitions, documentation and information”. The museum’s website includes a virtual exhibition “Divided - United: Fifty Years of the German Question” at http://www.hdg.de/karikatur/view/karikaturen.html This deals with significant events from each of the fifty years from 1949 to 1998 , in cartoons from both East and West Germany.
German Museum of Caricature and Satirical Drawing, Germany
The Deutsches Museum für Karikatur und kritische Grafik in Hannover has a website at http://www.wilhelm-busch-museum.de/, with details of its current exhibitions.
Centre Internationale de la Bande Dessinée et de l’Image, France
The Centre Internationale de la Bande Dessinée et de l’Image is a cartoon gallery, library, and museum based in Angoulême, France, which has a website at http://www.cnbdi.fr/
Centro Nazionale del Fumetto, Italy
The Italian National Centre for Comic Art is based in Turin, and has a website at http://www.fumetti.org/, including news and useful links. The site also includes a Virtual Comic Art Museum - Il Museo Virtuale del Fumetto - at http://www.fumetti.org/museo/default.htm, which contains an ambitious biographical guide to Italian cartoonists since 1908.
Centre Belge de la Bande Dessinée, Belgium
At http://www.brusselsbdtour.com/cbbd.htm there is a description and virtual tour of the Belgian Cartoon Centre in Brussels, which takes in everything from its library to its statue of Tintin. For the official Tintin website - with a biography of Georges Rémi (“Hergé”) - visit http://www.tintin.com/uk/
Caricature and Cartoon Museum, Switzerland
The website of the Basel Caricature and Cartoon Museum, which was established in 1979, is at http://www.cartoonmuseum.ch/.
Danish Comics Museum, Denmark
The Danish Comics Museum opened in Kalundborg in 1993, but the exhibitions closed in 2000. Since then it has existed only as a national collection and a website at http://www.tegneseriemuseet.dk/tegnemus/presentation.htm#COMICS. An interesting history of Danish comics is included at http://www.tegneseriemuseet.dk/dkhist/dkhist.htm#COMICS MUSEUM.
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia’s Pictorial Collection can be searched online at http://www.nla.gov.au/catalogue/pictures/index.html, and includes hundreds of cartoon images.
The National Museum of Australia
The National Museum of Australia hosts an annual exhibition of cartoons drawn from the major Australian newspapers. Images from the exhibition can be found online at http://www.nma.gov.au/exhibitions/index.html
National Library of New Zealand
“Timeframes” is an online database of over 20,000 images from the Alexander Turnbull Library, a division of the National Library of New Zealand. It contains hundreds of cartoon images, including dozens by the New-Zealand-born cartoonist David Low, and can be searched through http://timeframes1.natlib.govt.nz/.
Library of Congress, United States
The Library of Congress has an number of important cartoon collections. In 1921 it bought a collection of ten thousand British satirical prints from the Royal Library at Windsor Castle, and in 1974 it was given the Caroline and Erwin Swann Collection of Caricature and Cartoon, amounting to over 2,000 drawings, prints, and paintings related to the art of caricature, cartoon, and illustration. An article on “Cartoon-related Research at the Library of Congress” is available online at http://lcweb.loc.gov/rr/print/swann/cartoon_research.html, and some of the Library’s cartoon material can be searched online through the catalogues at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/pp/pphome.html
Cartoon Research Library, Ohio State University, United States
The Cartoon Research Library was established in 1977, and its aim is “to develop a comprehensive research collection of materials documenting American printed cartoon art”. The current holdings include 240,000 original cartoons; 20,000 books; and more than 2,800 linear feet of manuscript materials. The Library’s website is at http://cartoons.osu.edu/index.php , but copyright problems mean that few cartoons are displayed.
California State University, Oviatt Library, Northridge, United States
Chase Craig Collection 1924-1980 W. Chase Craig (1910 - 2002) illustrated, wrote and produced comic books from the mid 1930's until his retirement from Western Printing and Lithography in 1975. The collections’s website at http://library.csun.edu/Collections/SCA/SC/FG/fdgds4a.html
The Cartoon Museum, United Kingdom
The Cartoon Museum is a registered charity dedicated to collecting and conserving the best of British cartoons, caricatures, and comics, and to establishing a museum of cartoon art in London and it has a website at http://www.cartoonmuseum.org/ .
Cartoonist’s Club of Great Britain
Cartoonist’s Club of Great Britain was launched in London in 1960, with the aim “of encouraging social contacts between cartoonists...and to promote the art of the cartoon.” It is a membership organisation, whose website can be found at http://www.ccgb.org.uk/.
Cartoonists’ Guild (UK)
The Cartoonists’ Guild (UK) claims to represent “the best of Britain's professional cartoon talent”, and its website at http://www.cartoonistsguild.com/ has pages for its members. Those who work in the field of “Topical/Political/Social Comment” cartoons are listed at http://www.cartoonistsguild.com/edit.htm.
Political Cartoon Society, United Kingdom
The Political Cartoon Society is a membership organisation run by Dr Tomothy S. Benson, which publishes a quarterly newsletter and organises exhibitions of original political cartoon art. Its website at http://www.politicalcartoon.co.uk/index.html has news of forthcoming exhibitions, plus useful historical articles - such as the consideration of David Low and Lord Beaverbrook at http://www.politicalcartoon.co.uk/html/history3.html.
The Cartoonists’ and Writers’ Syndicate
The Cartoonists’ and Writers’ Syndicate was founded in 1978, and represents over 350 cartoonists from more than fifty countries. Its website at http://www.cartoonweb.com/ includes “Cartoons in Focus”- a selection of recently-published cartoons on a range of political and social topics.
Association of American Editorial Cartoonists, United States
The Association of American Editorial Cartoonists was founded in 1957 to promote and stimulate public interest in the art of editorial cartooning and to create close association among editorial cartoonists. Their website at http://editorialcartoonists.com/
National Cartoonists’ Society, United States
The American National Cartoonists Society was founded in 1946, and is open only to those who derive at least half their income from cartooning. Based in New York, it has over 600 members worldwide, and its website at http://www.reuben.org/main.asp includes links to the websites of many of them.
American Popular Culture Association, United States
The American Popular Culture Association includes a “Comic Art and Comics” section, whose web page is at http://www.comicsresearch.org/CAC/. Allen Ellis of the American Popular Culture Association published “Comic Art in Scholarly Writing - A Citation Guide” in the International Journal of Comic Art 1.1 (Spring/Summer 1999), pp.33-41. It includes notes on citing editorial cartoons and newspaper strips.
Web resources: Political cartoons
William Hogarth and 18th-Century Print Culture
Northwestern University in Chicago runs a site on “William Hogarth and 18th-Century Print Culture” at http://www.library.northwestern.edu/spec/hogarth/main.html. Widely illustrated and annotated, it includes a section on Hogarth’s political images at http://www.library.northwestern.edu/spec/hogarth/politics.html .
American Political Cartoons, 1766 to 1884.
The Harper’s Weekly website at http://www.harpweek.com/ contains two valuable databases of American political cartoons. “American Political Prints 1766 to 1876” is drawn from the Library of Congress collection, but has been catalogued and extensively annotated. It has a wide range of images, including many relating to American relations with Britain. A second archive of “The Presidential Elections 1860-1912” is at http://elections.harpweek.com/, with cartoons and background information from the seven presidential elections in the United States from 1860-1912. The cartoons are taken from the Library of Congress collection, plus Harper's Weekly, Vanity Fair, Frank Leslie's Illustrated Weekly, and Puck.
Political Cartoons and Cartoonists
Jim Zwick’s Historical Graphics Gallery contains a section on Political Cartoons and Cartoonists. This includes short biographies and articles on American cartoon history, and a list of the themed collections on the site can be found at http://www.boondocksnet.com/gallery/political_cartoons.html The content is principally American, but collections such as “Woman Suffrage in Political Cartoons” at http://www.boondocksnet.com/gallery/suf_intro.html contains several images of British suffragettes seen from an American perspective. There is also an index of cartoonists represented on the site at http://www.boondocksnet.com/cartoons/cartoons_cartoonists.html.
The website “Red Clydeside:A Gateway to Resources” deals with the industrial, social and political upheaval which occurred in Glasgow between the years 1910 and 1922. There is an interesting page of left-wing political cartoons from this period at http://gdl.cdlr.strath.ac.uk/redclyde/.
The FDR Cartoon Archive
The FDR Cartoon Archive at http://www.nisk.k12.ny.us/fdr/ contains more than 2,400 political cartoons from the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt. These have been taken from a collection of 30,000 political cartoons dating from 1932 to 1943 in the Roosevelt Presidential Library in New York. The online images include some by British political cartoonists - such as J. Wallace Coop from the News of the World at http://www.nisk.k12.ny.us/fdr/fdr_foreign/33042301.GIF.
Dr. Seuss Went to War: A Catalog of Political Cartoons by Dr. Seuss
From 1941 to 1943 Theodor Seuss Geisel - “Dr. Seuss” - was chief editorial cartoonist for the New York newspaper PM, drawing over 400 editorial cartoons. The artwork and cuttings are in the Dr. Seuss Collection at the University of California, San Diego, which has put them on the web at http://orpheus.ucsd.edu/speccoll/dspolitic/. A page of cartoons dealing with Britain can be found at http://orpheus.ucsd.edu/speccoll/dspolitic/GreatBritain.html.
CNN ‘Toons Archive
The CNN online news service includes political cartoons, some of which are animated. They are archived in the CNN ‘Toons Archive at http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/analysis/toons/archive.html.
American political cartoons and the First Amendment
The text of the US Supreme Court’s 1988 decision in Hustler Magazine, Inc. et al. v. Jerry Falwell can be found at http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/comm/free_speech/hustler.html. This important case concerned the status of political cartoons and the “emotional distress” they may cause to those depicted, arising from a cartoon that “portrayed respondent as having engaged in a drunken incestuous rendezvous with his mother in an outhouse.”
Web resources: Cartoonists
Cartoonists at Spartacus Schoolnet
The cartoonists and illustrators included in the Spartacus Educational online encyclopaedia can be found at http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/cartoons.htm. These biographies and examples cover a wide range of British, German, and American cartoonists, from James Gillray to Carl Giles. There are also brief entries for art editors such as Cyril Bird - at http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/ARTbird.htm, and publications such as Punch - at http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Jpunch.htm.
The website of Bud Plant Illustrated Books has a large biographical section at http://www.bpib.com/illustra.htm, featuring more than a hundred illustrated and interlinked biographies of illustrators. Many of these were also cartoonists, and there are useful pages on W. Heath Robinson at http://www.bpib.com/illustrat/whrobin.htm, and on Ronald Searle at http://www.bpib.com/illustrat/searle.htm.
The London Cartoon Gallery
The London Cartoon Gallery sells the original artwork for editorial and strip cartoons published in British newspapers and magazines. It represents a number of different cartoonists, and there is a useful page of biographies with fuller coverage of Steve Bell and Chris Riddell. http://www.cartoongallery.co.uk .
Daryl Cagle’s Professional Cartoonists’ Index
The Professional Cartoonists’ Index at http://www.cagle.com/ has a wealth of material on American editorial cartooning, but also includes examples of recent political cartoons from around the world at http://www.cagle.com/politicalcartoons/ This includes work by Martyn Turner of the Irish Times, who appears at http://www.cagle.com/politicalcartoons/PCcartoons/turner.asp.
Web resources: Individual cartoonists
Baldy Editorial Cartoons
Some 2,500 editorial cartoons from the Clifford H. Baldowski Collection at the University of Georgia can be viewed at http://dlg.galileo.usg.edu/baldy.html. Known by the pen-name of "Baldy," Baldowski drew cartoons for the Augusta Chronicle, Miami Herald, and Atlanta Constitution from 1946 until 1982. Most of his work refers to American politics, but some touches on relations with Britain.
Patrick Blower - The Blower Archive
The Blower Archive can be found at http://www.patrickblower.com/. It contains Patrick Blower’s cartoons from the News of the World, Sunday Times and the London Evening Standard.
Frank Boyle of the Edinburgh Evening News
Frank Boyle’s editorial cartoons have been running in the Edinburgh Evening News since March 1999, under the heading “Boyling Point”. A selection of the most recent can be found on his website at http://www.boylecartoon.co.uk/main.html.
Carl Giles Tribute Pages
Stephen Adams maintains a website dedicated to the Daily Express cartoonist Carl Giles at http://giles.clickhere2.net/index.html. This includes a database of images, bibliographic information, a guide to the long-running characters in Giles’ cartoons, and - at http://giles.clickhere2.net/database.htm - a chronological listing of the 6,000 Daily Express cartoons that were reprinted in the Giles Cartoons annuals and albums.
A website dedicated to the work of artist and cartoonist John Glashan (1927 - 1999) is at http://www.johnglashan.com/ Glashan drew single frame cartoons for many publications, but is perhaps best remembered for his “Genius” strip, which ran in The Observer magazine from 1978 to 1983, featuring Anode Enzyme and his patron Lord Doberman.
Tom Halliday is an Irish political cartoonist and caricaturist published in The Sunday Independent and The Southern Star. He has web pages at http://homepage.tinet.ie/~tomhalliday/TomHalliday.htm .
The Gerard Hoffnung Website can be found at http://www.musicweb.uk.net/hoffnung/, celebrating the life of this cartoonist, musician, and broadcaster.
The joke and strip cartoonist Tony Husband does work for Private Eye and The Times, and has a website at http://www.tonyhusband.co.uk/.
R. F. Outcault and the Yellow Kid
In 1894 Richard Felton Outcault created the “Yellow Kid”, but within a couple of years the character was appearing in both the New York World and its rival the New York Journal - giving rise to the expression “Yellow Journalism.” The R. F. Outcault Society's Yellow Kid Site includes an article by Richard D. Olson on “R. F. Outcault, The Father of the American Sunday Comics, and the Truth About the Creation of the Yellow Kid” at http://www.neponset.com/yellowkid/history.htm
Charles M. Schultz
A biography of Charles M. Schultz, creator of “Peanuts”, can be found at http://www.schulzmuseum.org/. on the website of the official Charles M. Schulz Museum in Santa Rosa, California, which opened in 2002.
George Studdy and “Bonzo the Dog”
George Studdy began drawing “Bonzo the Dog” in The Sketch in 1922, and the character gained enormous popularity, appearing on postcards and souvenirs as well as in twenty six animated cartoons released in 1924 and 1925. Richard Fitzpatrick’s George Studdy and Bonzo web site at http://www.bonzo.me.uk/ includes a useful biography of Studdy at http://www.bonzo.me.uk/bio.htm, with many linked images.
The website of Bill Tidy, one of the most prolific British cartoonists, can be found at http://www.billtidy.com/ Martyn Turner of the Irish Times
Martyn Turner’s editorial cartoons appear on Daryl Cagle’s website at http://www.cagle.com/politicalcartoons/PCcartoons/turner.asp . Arthur Watts Remembered
This family tribute to the artist and illustrator Arthur Watts includes examples of his work for Punch from 1912 to 1935, and can be seen at http://www.arthurwatts.com/index.html.
Web resources: General
European Comics on the Web
European Comics on the Web is available at http://ifarm.nl/strips/ and contains a wide range of links to European comics and graphic art.
The Lambiek Comiclopedia
The Galerie Lambiek opened in Amsterdam in 1968, and is Europe's oldest antiquarian comic shop. Its website includes the “Lambiek Comiclopedia”, a searchable database of artist biographies and artwork at http://www.lambiek.net/artists/index.htm. Mainly concerned with comic artists, the massive “Comiclopedia” does however include British editorial cartoonists such as Wally Fawkes - “Trog” - and Carl Giles, along with newspaper strip cartoonists such as Reg Smythe and Norman Pett. The Galerie Lambiek also holds exhibitions, listed at http://www.lambiek.net/expo.htm.
Don Markstein's Toonopedia
Donald D. Markstein has created the “Toonopedia” as “the world's first hypertext encyclopedia of toons” - a term that he uses to cover all American cartooning, from comic books to newspaper strips. More than four hundred short linked articles are available at http://www.toonopedia.com/, and provide a useful introduction to American comic art.
Words and Pictures Virtual Museum of Comics
In 1992 artist Kevin B. Eastman opened the Words & Pictures Museum of Fine Sequential Art in Northampton, Massachusetts, but in 1999 this exhibition centre was reborn as the Words and Pictures Virtual Museum of Comics. The website at http://www.wordsandpictures.org/index.cfm includes numerous links pages, to libraries and universities with comic art collections, as well as to organisations and individuals. At http://www.wordsandpictures.org/listings.cfm?categoryname=Universities there is a useful page of links to “online collections, centers of study, scholarly conferences, discussions and libraries.”
The Comics Scholarship Annotated Bibliographies
Gene Kannenberg’s website at http://www.comicsresearch.org/ features the Comics Scholarship Annotated Bibliographies, which cover book-length works about comic books and comic strips, from fan writing to academic monographs. The bibliographies include books from all countries, and include some entries on editorial cartooning.
The Grand Comic-Book Database Project
This ambitious project aims to create a Grand Comic-Book Database with “data for every comic book ever published.” The intention of the volunteers on the project is “to catalog key story information, creator information, and other information which is useful to readers, fans, hobbyists, researchers.” The first 30,000 catalogued comics and comic books - largely from the United States - can be searched at http://www.comics.org/index.lasso.
Science in the Nineteenth-Century Periodical
The Science in the Nineteenth-Century Periodical (SciPer) project is jointly organised by the Centre for Nineteenth-Century Studies at the University of Sheffield and the Division of History and Philosophy of Science at the University of Leeds. The website at http://www.sciper.leeds.ac.uk/index.htm has cartoons from Punch as well as textual articles.
Propaganda Postcards of the Great War
The Propaganda Postcards of the Great War website displays images from the private collections of Paul Hageman and Jerry Kosanovich, and includes many social and political cartoons. The eventual aim is to display more than 2,500 images on the site at http://www.ww1-propaganda-cards.com/index.html
Jerry Beck’s Cartoon Research
One of the best websites for information on American animated cartoons on film and television is Jerry Beck’s Cartoon Research at http://www.cartoonresearch.com/index.html. The page of links at http://www.cartoonresearch.com/links.html gives access to a wide range of resources.
Chris Beetles Ltd, United Kingdom
The Chris Beetles Gallery in London specialises in the work of illustrators and cartoonists, and produces catalogues and exhibitions. He has a website at http://www.chrisbeetles.com/.
CartoonStock is a searchable database of work by a number of published cartoonists, and can be found at http://www.cartoonstock.com/.
Cartoonet Illustration Agency
The Cartoonet Illustration Agency aims “to help publishers, editors, art directors and web designers find freelance illustrators and artists worldwide.” It has a website at http://www.illustration-agency.com/ .
Drawn & Quartered.com
Drawn & Quartered.com is an online agency that represents a number of editorial cartoonists, and its website can be found at http://www.drawnandquartered.com/.
New Yorker Magazine, United States
A searchable archive of New Yorker covers can be found at http://www.cartoonbank.com/. It is part of the main New Yorker site which also markets reproductions of cartoons from the magazine.
Punch Magazine, United Kingdom
An archive of undated Punch cartoons can be found at Punch website at http://www.punch.co.uk/. Copies of the cartoons can be bought through the site.
King Features Syndicate, United States
In 1913 William Randolph Hearst created the Newspaper Feature Service, to syndicate material to newspapers across America. In 1915 it was succeeded by King Features Syndicate, which became responsible for launching many well-known cartoons and strips on the American market. The website includes a useful history at http://www.kingfeatures.com/history/index.htm, and the Syndicate’s current editorial cartonists are listed at http://www.kingfeatures.com/features/edcar/edcar.htm.
United Media, United States
United Media is a worldwide licensing and syndication company, which provides newspaper strips and editorial cartoons. A list of its syndicated material can be found at http://www.comics.com/, and United Media’s editorial cartoonists are accessible through http://www.unitedmedia.com/editoons/index.html.
The Periodic Table of Comic Books, United States
A site that defies description can be found at http://www.uky.edu/Projects/Chemcomics/index.htm. The Periodic Table of Comic Books was constructed by the University of Kentucky.
Official Rupert Bear website
In 1920 the illustrator Mary Tourtel created Rupert Bear as a children’s strip cartoon for the London Daily Express, to rival Teddy Tail in the London Daily Mail. The strip continues to be published, and the Official Rupert Bear website is run by the Followers of Rupert, a group of enthusiasts and collectors set up in 1983. It can be found at http://www.ee.ed.ac.uk/~afm/followers/.
Facet Books, United Kingdom
Facet Books specialises in second-hand British cartoon books and comics, and its online catalogue can be found at http://www.jallinson.freeserve.co.uk/.
Park Art Cartoon Books, United Kingdom
Park Art is a specialist wholesaler and retailer of cartoon books and books about the history of cartoons. Its website is at http://www.cartoonbooks.co.uk and email is