League of Nations - Japan and Manchuria
In September 1931 the Japanese army invaded the Chinese territory of Manchuria. Japan was a permanent member of the Council of the League of Nations. All members of the League swore a Covenant to uphold the aims of the League, of which the points were the discouragement of aggression, promotion of international cooperation and disarmament. Japanese actions therefore fundamentally undermined the League and, along with the Italian invasion of Abyssinia, demonstrated that even League members were not prepared to sacrifice self-interest. China appealed to the League of Nations and also to the United States (The United States had brokered a multi-nation peace-keeping treaty known as the Kellogg-Briand Pact in 1928; Japan had signed this disavowal of war also). As the League had no army of its own with which to counter aggressive nations, its options were limited. In the end, it decided to send Lord Lytton to Manchuria to conduct an inquiry. The report was finally completed in October of 1932, found Japan to be the aggressor and ordered her withdrawal from China. Japan refused to accept the findings and eventually, in March 1933, left the League. The League's actions had, clearly, failed to prevent or reverse aggression and this incident, therefore contributed to the collapse of the League's credibility as a peace-keeping organisation.
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